USGS 1992 National Land Cover

SDE Raster Dataset

Tags
Land Cover, Land Management, EDC, Landsat, MRLC, Remote Sensing, geoscientificInformation, North Dakota, Land Use/Land Cover, EPA, environment, Satellite, ND, imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, EROS, United States of America, Land Characterization, USGS, Land Resources, farming, Imagery, Space Imaging, North America

Description

These data can be used in a geographic information system (GIS) for any number of purposes such as assessing wildlife habitat, water quality, pesticide runoff, land use change, etc. The State data sets are provided with a 300 meter buffer beyond the State border to faciliate combining the State files into larger regions. The user must have a firm understanding of how the datasets were compiled and the resulting limitations of these data. The National Land Cover Dataset was compiled from Landsat satellite TM imagery (circa 1992) with a spatial resolution of 30 meters and supplemented by various ancillary data (where available). The analysis and interpretation of the satellite imagery was conducted using very large, sometimes multi-state image mosaics (i.e. up to 18 Landsat scenes). Using a relatively small number of aerial photographs for 'ground truth', the thematic interpretations were necessarily conducted from a spatially-broad perspective. Furthermore, the accuracy assessments (see below) correspond to 'federal regions' which are groupings of contiguous states. Thus, the reliability of the data is greatest at the state or multi-state level. The statistical accuracy of the data is known only for the region. Important Caution Advisory With this in mind, users are cautioned to carefully scrutinize the data to see if they are of sufficient reliability before attempting to use the dataset for larger-scale or local analyses. This evaluation must be made remembering that the NLCD represents conditions in the early 1990s. The North Dakota portion of the NLCD was created as part of land cover mapping activities for Federal Region VIII which includes the States of Montana, North and South Dakota, Wyoming, Utah and Colorado. The NLCD classification contains 21 different land cover categories with a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The NLCD was produced as a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to produce a consistent, land cover data layer for the conterminous U.S. using early 1990s Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data purchased by the Multi-resolution Land Characterization (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of federal agencies that produce or use land cover data. Partners include the USGS (National Mapping, Biological Resources, and Water Resources Divisions), US EPA, the U.S. Forest Service, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Summary

The main objective of this project was to generate a generalized and nationally consistent land cover data layer for the entire conterminous United States. These data can be used as a layer in a geographic information system (GIS) for any number of purposes such assessing wildlife habitat, water quality and pesticide runoff, land use change, etc.

Credits

This work was performed by the Raytheon STX Corporation under U.S. Geological Survey Contract 1434-92-C-40004.

Use limitations

None. Acknowledgement of the U.S. Geological Survey would be appreciated in products derived from these data.

Scale Range

Metadata 

Topics and Keywords 

Themes or categories of the resource  geoscientificInformation, imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, environment, farming


*Content type  Downloadable Data


Place keywords  United States of America, North America

Thesaurus
Title U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977, Countries, dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and their principal administrative divisions (Federal Information Processing Standard 10-3):Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology.




Place keywords  North Dakota, ND

Thesaurus
Title U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia, and the outlying areas of the United States and associated areas Federal Information Processing Standard 5-20; Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology.




Theme keywords  Land Cover, Land Management, EDC, Landsat, MRLC, Remote Sensing, geoscientificInformation, Land Use/Land Cover, EPA, environment, Satellite, imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, EROS, Land Characterization, USGS, Land Resources, farming, Imagery, Space Imaging

Citation 

Title USGS 1992 National Land Cover
Publication date 2000-09-06


Edition 1


Presentation formats* digital table


Citation Contacts 

Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD USA



Resource Details 

Dataset languages  English (UNITED STATES)


Status  completed
Spatial representation type* grid


Supplemental information
*Processing environment Microsoft Windows 7 Version 6.1 (Build 7601) Service Pack 1; Esri ArcGIS 10.3.1.4959


Credits
This work was performed by the Raytheon STX Corporation under U.S. Geological Survey Contract 1434-92-C-40004.

*Name NDHUB.LANDCLASS_NLC_1992

Extents 

Extent
Description
publication date

Temporal extent
Date and time 2000-09-06

Extent
Geographic extent
Bounding rectangle
Extent type  Extent used for searching
*West longitude -104.450245
*East longitude -96.390089
*North latitude 49.256932
*South latitude 45.692348
*Extent contains the resource Yes

Extent in the item's coordinate system
*West longitude 102465.189431
*East longitude 690015.189431
*South latitude 5072558.346092
*North latitude 5456018.346092
*Extent contains the resource Yes

Resource Points of Contact 

Point of contact
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's position Customer Services Representative
Contact's role  point of contact


Contact information
Phone
Voice (605) 594-6151
TDD/TTY (605) 594-6933
Fax (605) 594-6589

Address
Type both
Delivery point U.S. Geological Survey, EROS Data Center
City Sioux Falls
Administrative area SD
Postal code 57198
Country US
e-mail addressCUSTSERV@EDCMAIL.CR.USGS.GOV



Resource Maintenance 

Resource maintenance
Update frequency  as needed


Resource Constraints 

Legal constraints
Limitations of use
Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the USGS, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the USGS regarding the use of the data on any other system, nor does the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.

Constraints
Limitations of use
None. Acknowledgement of the U.S. Geological Survey would be appreciated in products derived from these data.

Spatial Reference 

ArcGIS coordinate system
*Type Projected
*Geographic coordinate reference GCS_North_American_1983
*Projection NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_14N
*Coordinate reference details
Projected coordinate system
Well-known identifier 26914
X origin -5120900
Y origin -9998100
XY scale 450445547.3910538
Z origin 0
Z scale 1
M origin 0
M scale 1
XY tolerance 0.001
Z tolerance 2
M tolerance 2
High precision true
Latest well-known identifier 26914
Well-known text PROJCS["NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_14N", GEOGCS["GCS_North_American_1983", DATUM["D_North_American_1983", SPHEROID["GRS_1980", 6378137.0, 298.257222101]], PRIMEM["Greenwich", 0.0], UNIT["Degree", 0.0174532925199433]], PROJECTION["Transverse_Mercator"], PARAMETER["False_Easting", 500000.0], PARAMETER["False_Northing", 0.0], PARAMETER["Central_Meridian", -99.0], PARAMETER["Scale_Factor", 0.9996], PARAMETER["Latitude_Of_Origin", 0.0], UNIT["Meter", 1.0], AUTHORITY["EPSG", 26914]]

Reference system identifier
*Value 26914
*Codespace EPSG
*Version 8.6.2


Data Quality 

Scope of quality information
Resource level  dataset




Data quality report - Conceptual consistency
Measure description
An unsupervised classification algorithm was used to classify the mosaicked multiple leaf-off TM scenes. Aerial photographs were used to interpret and label classes into land cover categories and ancillary data sources resolved the class confusion. Further land cover information from leaf-on TM data, NWI data, and other sources were incorporated to refine and augment the "basic" classification.





Data quality report - Completeness omission
Measure description
All photo-interpretable data are mapped.





Data quality report - Quantitative attribute accuracy
Measure description
An accuracy assessment is done on all NLCD on a Federal Region basis following a revision cycle that incorporates feedback from MRLC Consortium partners and affiliated users. The accuracy assessments are conducted by private sector vendors under contract to the USEPA. A protocol has been established by the USGS and USEPA that incorporates a two-stage, geographically stratified cluster sampling plan (Zhu et al., 1999)utilizing National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) photographs as the sampling frame and the basic sampling unit. In this design a NAPP photograph is defined as a 1st stage or primary sampling unit (PSU), and a sampled pixel within each PSU is treated as a 2nd stage or secondary sampling unit (SSU). PSU's are selected from a sampling grid based on NAPP flight-lines and photo centers, each grid cell measures 15' X 15' (minutes of latitude/longitude) and consists of 32 NHAP photographs. A geographically stratified random sampling is performed with 1 NAPP photo being randomly selected from each cell (geographic strata), if a sampled photo falls outside of the regional boundary it is not used. Second stage sampling is accomplished by selecting SSU's (pixels) within each PSU (NAPP photo) to provide the actual locations for the reference land cover classification. The SSU's are manually interpreted and misclassification errors are estimated and described using a traditional error matrix as well as a number of other important measures including the overall proportion of pixels correctly classified, user's and producer's accuracies, and omission and commission error probabilities. At the time of CD release (Spring, 2001), the accuracy assessment was not complete. For the Region VIII accuracy assessment please check the NLCD Website: http://edcwww.usgs.gov/programs/lccp/natllandcover.html. The accuracy assessment numbers will be posted there around Fall, 2001.





Data quality report - Absolute external positional accuracy
Dimension horizontal


Measure description
Each Landsat Thematic Mapper image used to create the NLCD was precision terrain-corrected using 3-arc-second digital terrain elevation data (DTED), and georegistered using ground control points. This resulted in a root mean square registration error of less than 1 pixel (30 meters).





Lineage 

Process step
When the process occurred 2000-08-30
Description
Land Cover Characterization: The project is being carried out on the basis of 10 Federal Regions that make up the conterminous United States; each region is comprised of multiple states; each region is processed in subregional units that are limited to the area covered by no more than 18 Landsat TM scenes. The general NLCD procedure is to: (1) mosaic subregional TM scenes and classify them using an unsupervised clustering algorithm, (2) interpret and label the clusters/classes using aerial photographs as reference data, (3) resolve the labeling of confused clusters/classes using the appropriate ancillary data source(s), and (4) incorporate land cover information from other data sets and perform manual edits to augment and refine the "basic" classification developed above. Two seasonally distinct TM mosaics are produced, a leaves-on version (summer) and a leaves-off (spring/fall) version. TM bands 3, 4, 5, and 7 are mosaicked for both the leaves-on and leaves-off versions. For mosaick purposes, a base scene is selected for each mosaic and the other scenes are adjusted to mimic spectral properties of the base scene using histogram matching in regions of spatial overlap. Following mosaicking, either the leaves-off version or leaves-on version Is selected to be the "base" for the land cover mapping process. The 4 TM bands of the "base" mosaic are clustered to produce a single 100- class image using an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Each of the spectrally distinct clusters/classes is then assigned to one or more Anderson level 1 and 2 land cover classes using National High Altitude Photography program (NHAP)and National Aerial Photography program (NAPP) aerial photographs as a reference. Almost invariably, individual spectral clusters/classes are confused between two or more land cover classes. Separation of the confused spectral clusters/classes into appropriate NLCD class is accomplished using ancillary data layers. Standard ancillary data layers include: the "non-base" mosaic TM bands and 100- class cluster image; derived TM normalized vegetation index (NDVI), various TM band ratios, TM date bands; 3-arc second Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) and derived slope, aspect and shaded relief; population and housing density data; USGS land use and land cover (LUDA); and National Wetlands Inventory(NWI) data if available. Other ancillary data sources may include soils data, unique state or regional land cover data sets, or data from other federal programs such as the National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) of the USGS Biological Resources Division (BRD). For a given confused spectral cluster/class, digital values of the various ancillary data layers are compared to determine: (1) which data layers are the most effective for splitting the confused cluster/class into the appropriate NLCD class, and (2) the appropriate layer thresholds for making the split(s). Models are then developed using one to several ancillary data layers to split the confused cluster/class into the NLCD class. For example, a population density threshold is used to separate high-intensity residential areas from commercial/industrial/transportation. Or a cluster/class might be confused between row crop and grasslands. To split this particular cluster/class, a TM NDVI threshold might be identified and used with an elevation threshold in a class-splitting model to make the appropriate NLCD class assignments. A purely spectral example is using the temporally opposite TM layers to discriminate confused cluster/classes such as hay pasture vs. row crops and deciduous forests vs. evergreen forests; simple thresholds that contrast the seasonal differences in vegetation between leaves-on vs. leaves-off. Not all cluster/class confusion can be successfully modeled out. Certain classes such as urban/recreational grasses or quarries/strip mines/gravel pits that are not spectrally unique require manual editing. These class features are typically visually identified and then reclassified using on-screen digitizing and recoding. Other classes such as wetlands require the use of specific data sets such as NWI to provide the most accurate classification. Areas lacking NWI data are typically subset out and modeling is used to estimate wetlands in these localized areas. The final NLCD product results from the classification (interpretation and labeling) of the 100-class "base" cluster mosaic using both automated and manual processes, incorporating both spectral and conditional data layers. For a more detailed explanation please see Vogelmann et al. 1998 and Vogelmann et al. 1998. Discussion: While we believe that the approach taken has yielded a very good general land cover classification product for the nation, it is important to indicate to the user where there might be some potential problems. The biggest concerns are listed below: 1) Some of the TM data sets are not temporally ideal. Leaves-off data sets are heavily relied upon for discriminating between hay/pasture and row crop, and also for discriminating between forest classes. The success of discriminating between these classes using leaves-off data sets hinges on the time of data acquisition. When hay/pasture areas are non-green, they are not easily distinguishable from other agricultural areas using remotely sensed data. However, there is a temporal window during which hay and pasture areas green up before most other vegetation (excluding evergreens, which have different spectral properties); during this window these areas are easily distinguishable from other crop areas. The discrimination between hay/pasture and deciduous forest is likewise optimized by selecting data in a temporal window where deciduous vegetation has yet to leaf out. It is difficult to acquire a single-date of imagery (leaves-on or leaves-off) that adequately differentiates between both deciduous/hay and pasture and hay pasture /row crop. 2) The data sets used cover a range of years (see data sources), and changes that have taken place across the landscape over the time period may not have been captured. While this is not viewed as a major problem for most classes, it is possible that some land cover features change more rapidly than might be expected (e.g. hay one year, row crop the next). 3) Wetlands classes are extremely difficult to extract from Landsat TM spectral information alone. The use of ancillary information such as National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data is highly desirable. We relied on GAP, LUDA, or proximity to streams and rivers as well as spectral data to delineate wetlands in areas without NWI data. 4) Separation of natural grass and shrub is problematic. Areas observed on the ground to be shrub or grass are not always distinguishable spectrally. Likewise, there was often disagreement between LUDA and GAP on these classes. Acknowledgments This work was performed under contract the U.S. Geological Survey(Contract 1434-CR-97-CN-40274). References More detailed information on the methodologies and techniques employed In this work can be found in the following: Kelly, P.M., and White, J.M., 1993. Preprocessing remotely sensed data for efficient analysis and classification, Applications of Artificial Intelligence 1993: Knowledge-Based Systems in Aerospace and Industry, Proceeding of SPIE, 1993, 24-30. Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe, 1979. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. Vogelmann, J.E., Sohl, T., and Howard, S.M., 1998. "Regional Characterization of Land Cover Using Multiple Sources of Data." Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Vol. 64, No. 1, pp. 45-57. Vogelmann, J.E., Sohl, T., Campbell, P.V., and Shaw, D.M., 1998. "Regional Land Cover Characterization Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data and Ancillary Data Sources." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 51, pp. 415-428. Zhu, Z., Yang, L., Stehman, S., and Czaplewski, R., 1999. "Designing an Accuracy Assessment for USGS Regional Land Cover Mapping Program." (In review) Photogrametric Engineering & Remote Sensing.



Process contact
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's position Customer Services Representative
Contact's role  processor


Contact information
Phone
Voice (605) 594 - 6551
TDD/TTY (605) 594 - 6933
Fax (605) 594 - 6589

Address
Type both
Delivery point U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
City Sioux Falls
Administrative area SD
Postal code 57198
Country US
e-mail addressCUSTSERV@EDCMAIL.CR.USGS.GOV



Source data
Relationship to the process step used


Source citation
Alternate titles  Landsat thematic mapper (TM)








Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image29
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


Presentation formats  digital map
FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote-sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 033/026



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1990-09-11



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image25
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 031/028



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1991-08-31



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image23
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 031/026



Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1992-08-17



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM image
Alternate titles  image35
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


Presentation formats  digital map
FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote-sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 035/026



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point EROS Data Center Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1992-08-16



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM image
Alternate titles  image31
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


Presentation formats  digital map
FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote-sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 033/028



Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center U.S. Geological Survey
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1990-09-11



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image12
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 033/027



Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1992-05-27



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image20
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 030/026



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1992-08-10



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image19
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 029/028



Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1991-08-17



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image17
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 035/026



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1995-06-19



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image16
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 034/028



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1989-06-19



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image15
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 034/027



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1988-05-23



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image10
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 032/028



Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1987-04-21



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image9
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 032/027



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1994-05-26



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image8
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 032/026



Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1994-05-26



Source data
Description
The image provided the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image7
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 031/028



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1993-05-16



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image6
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 031/027



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1989-05-21



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image5
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 031/026



Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1990-06-09



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image1
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 029/028



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1993-04-16



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image2
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 030/026



Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1994-05-12



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM image
Alternate titles  image32
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


Presentation formats  digital map
FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote-sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 034/026



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1989-09-15



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image26
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 032/026



Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1989-10-03



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image24
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 031/027



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1991-08-31



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM image
Alternate titles  image36
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


Presentation formats  digital map
FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote-sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 035/027



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point EROS Data Center Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1993-08-16



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM image
Alternate titles  image34
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


Presentation formats  digital map
FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote-sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 034/028



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1993-08-09



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image28
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


Presentation formats  digital map
FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote-sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 032/028



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1991-08-22



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image27
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


Presentation formats  digital map
FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote-sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 032/027



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1989-08-16



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM image
Alternate titles  image33
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


Presentation formats  digital map
FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote-sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 034/027



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1992-09-23



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image14
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 034/026



Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1992-05-18



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image21
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 030/027



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1992-08-10



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image18
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 035/027



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1992-06-10



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image3
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 030/027



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1992-05-06



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM image
Alternate titles  image30
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


Presentation formats  digital map
FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote-sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 033/027



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1990-09-11



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image13
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 033/028



Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1992-05-27



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image22
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 030/028



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1992-08-10



Source data
Description
The image provdes the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image11
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 033/026



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA





Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1987-06-15



Source data
Description
The image provides the base from which the land cover classification is determined.



Source citation
Title Landsat TM scene
Alternate titles  image4
Publication date
Indeterminate date unknown


FGDC geospatial presentation format  remote sensing image


Other citation details
Path/Row 030/028



Responsible party
Organization's name EROS Data Center
Contact's role  publisher


Contact information
Address
Delivery point Sioux Falls, SD 57198 USA



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1994-05-12



Distribution 

Distributor
Contact information
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey, EROS Data Center
Contact's position Customer Services Representative
Contact's role  distributor


Contact information
Phone
Voice 605-594-6551
TDD/TTY 605-594-6933
Fax 605-594-6589

Address
Type both
Delivery point Sioux Falls
City SD
Administrative area SD
Postal code 57198
Country US
e-mail addresscustserv@edcmail.cr.usgs.gov



Available format
Name GeoTIFF
Format information content GeoTIFF is a standard for storing georeference and geocoding information in a TIFF 6.0 compliant raster file (uncompressed).
Technical prerequisites Geo-TIFF viewing software. Some examples are ESRI's ARC/EXPLORER and USGS's DLGV32. The DLGV32 viewer is available free for download at the MidContinent Mapping Center web site (http://mcmcweb.er.usgs.gov/). Digital image processing software or geographic information system software is required to analyze or otherwise manipulate the data.


Ordering process
Terms and fees Current prices for the GEOTIFF NLCD data sets on CD-ROM are subject to change. Call 1-888-ASK-USGS for current prices or refer to http://edcsns17.cr.usgs.gov/helpdocs/prices.html.
Instructions
NLCD data may be obtained in the following ways: 1. Contacting the nearest Digital Cartographic Data Business Partner (GeoTIFF CD-ROM products only). A list of the Business Partners is available at: http://mapping.usgs.gov/www/partners/bpmain.html; 2. Calling 1-888-ASK-USGS 3. Ordering online via the USGS Global Land Information System at: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/Webglis/ Users of the Global Land Information System should search under the Land Cover category. 4. Visiting and ordering online through the NLCD availability page at: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/programs/lccp/mrlcreg.html


Transfer options
Medium of distribution
How data is written  iso9660 (CD-ROM)




Distribution format
*Name SDE Raster Dataset


Fields 

Details for object NDHUB.SDE_VAT_43 
*Type Table
*Row count 20


Field OBJECTID
 
*Alias OBJECTID
*Data type OID
*Width 4
*Precision 10
*Scale 0
*Field description
Internal feature number.

*Description source
ESRI

*Description of values
Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.





Field VALUE
 
*Alias VALUE
*Data type Integer
*Width 4
*Precision 10
*Scale 0




Field COUNT
 
*Alias COUNT
*Data type Integer
*Width 4
*Precision 10
*Scale 0




Field CLASS_NAME
 
*Alias CLASS_NAME
*Data type String
*Width 40
*Precision 0
*Scale 0






Overview Description
Entity and Attribute Overview
NOTE - All classes may NOT be represented in a specific state data set.
The class number represents the digital value of the class in the data
set.

Water
11 Open Water
12 Perennial Ice/Snow

Developed
21 Low Intensity Residential
22 High Intensity Residential
23 Commercial/Industrial/Transportation

Barren
31 Bare Rock/Sand/Clay
32 Quarries/Strip Mines/Gravel Pits
33 Transitional

Vegetated; Natural Forested Upland
41 Deciduous Forest
42 Evergreen Forest
43 Mixed Forest

Shrubland
51 Shrubland

Non-natural Woody
61 Orchards/Vineyards/Other

Herbaceous Upland
71 Grasslands/Herbaceous

Herbaceous Planted/Cultivated
81 Pasture/Hay
82 Row Crops
83 Small Grains
84 Fallow
85 Urban/Recreational Grasses

Wetlands
91 Woody Wetlands
92 Emergent Herbaceous Wetlands

NLCD Land Cover Classification System Land Cover Class Definitions:

Water All areas of open water or permanent ice/snow cover.

11. Open Water - areas of open water, generally with less
than 25 percent or greater cover of water (per pixel).

12. Perennial Ice/Snow  - All areas characterized by year-long
cover of ice and/or snow.

Developed - areas characterized by high percentage (approximately
30% or greater) of constructed materials (e.g. asphalt, concrete,
buildings, etc).

21. Low Intensity Residential - Includes areas with a mixture of
constructed materials and vegetation.  Constructed materials account
for 30-80 percent of the cover. Vegetation may account for 20 to 70
percent of the cover. These areas most commonly include single-family
housing units. Population densities will be lower than in high intensity
residential areas.

22. High Intensity Residential - Includes heavily built up urban
centers where people reside in high numbers. Examples include
apartment   complexes and row houses. Vegetation accounts for less
than 20 percent of the cover.  Constructed materials account for
80-100 percent of the cover.

23. Commercial/Industrial/Transportation - Includes infrastructure
(e.g. roads, railroads, etc.) and all highways and all developed areas
not classified as High Intensity Residential.

Barren - Areas characterized by bare rock, gravel, sad, silt, clay, or
other earthen material, with little or no "green" vegetation present
regardless of its inherent ability to support life. Vegetation, if
present, is more widely spaced and scrubby than that in the
"green"vegetated categories; lichen cover may be extensive.

31. Bare Rock/Sand/Clay - Perennially barren areas of bedrock, desert,
pavement, scarps, talus, slides, volcanic material, glacial debris, and
other accumulations of earthen material.

32. Quarries/Strip Mines/Gravel Pits - Areas of extractive mining
activities with significant surface expression.

33. Transitional - Areas of sparse vegetative cover (less than 25
percent that are dynamically changing from one land cover to
another, often because of land use activities.  Examples include
forest clearcuts, a transition phase between forest and agricultural land,
the temporary clearing of vegetation, and changes due to natural causes
(e.g. fire, flood, etc.)

Forested Upland - Areas characterized by tree cover (natural or
Semi-natural woody vegetation, generally greater than 6 meters tall);
Tree canopy accounts for 25-100 percent of the cover.

41. Deciduous Forest - Areas dominated by trees where 75 percent
or more of the tree species shed foliage simultaneously in response to
seasonal change.

42. Evergreen Forest -  Areas characterized by trees where 75 percent
or more of the tree species maintain their leaves all year.  Canopy is
never without green foliage.

43. Mixed Forest -  Areas dominated by trees where neither
deciduous nor evergreen species represent more than 75 percent
of the cover present.

Shrubland - Areas characterized by natural or semi-natural woody
vegetation with aerial stems, generally less than 6 meters tall
with individuals or clumps not touching to interlocking.  Both evergreen
and deciduous species of true shrubs, young trees, and trees or shrubs
that are small or stunted because of environmental conditions are
included.

51. Shrubland - Areas dominated by shrubs; shrub canopy accounts
for 25-100 percent of the cover. Shrub cover is generally greater
than 25 percent when tree cover is less than 25 percent. Shrub cover
may be less than 25 percent in cases when the cover of other life forms
(e.g. herbaceous or tree) is less than 25 percent and shrubs cover
exceeds the cover of the other life forms.

Non-natural Woody - Areas dominated by non-natural woody
vegetation; non-natural woody vegetative canopy accounts for
25-100 percent of the cover. The non-natural woody classification
is subject to the availability of sufficient ancillary data to
differentiate non-natural woody vegetation from  natural woody vegetation.

61. Orchards/Vineyards/Other - Orchards, vineyards, and other areas
planted or maintained for the production of fruits, nuts, berries, or
ornamentals.

Herbaceous Upland - Upland areas characterized by natural or
semi- natural herbaceous vegetation;  herbaceous vegetation
accounts for 75-100 percent of the cover.

71. Grasslands/Herbaceous - Areas dominated by upland grasses
and forbs.  In rare cases, herbaceous cover is less than 25 percent,
but exceeds the combined cover of the woody species present.
These areas are not subject to intensive management, but they are
often utilized for  grazing.

Planted/Cultivated - Areas characterized by herbaceous vegetation
That has been planted or is intensively managed for the production
of food, feed, or fiber; or is maintained in developed settings for
specific purposes. Herbaceous vegetation accounts for 75-100 percent
of the cover.

81. Pasture/Hay - Areas of grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures
planted for livestock grazing or the production of seed or hay crops.

82. Row Crops -  Areas used for the production of crops, such
as corn, soybeans, vegetables, tobacco, and cotton.

83. Small Grains -  Areas used for the production of graminoid
crops such as wheat, barley, oats, and rice

84. Fallow - Areas used for the production of crops that are
temporarily barren or with sparse  vegetative cover as a result of
being tilled in a management practice that incorporates prescribed
alternation between cropping and tillage.

85. Urban/Recreational Grasses - Vegetation (primarily grasses) planted
in developed settings for recreation, erosion control, or aesthetic
purposes. Examples include parks, lawns, golf courses, airport grasses,
and industrial site grasses.

Wetlands - Areas where the soil or substrate is periodically saturated
with or covered with water as defined by Cowardin et al.

91. Woody Wetlands - Areas where forest or shrubland vegetation
accounts for 25-100 percent of the cover and the soil or substrate
is periodically saturated with or covered with water.

92. Emergent Herbaceous Wetlands -  Areas where perennial
herbaceous vegetation accounts for 75-100 percent of the cover
and the soil or substrate is periodically saturated with or covered
with water.



Entity and Attribute Detail Citation
NLCD Regional Land Cover Classification System Key Rev. 11/98





Metadata Details 

Metadata language English (UNITED STATES)
Metadata character set  utf8 - 8 bit UCS Transfer Format


Scope of the data described by the metadata  dataset
Scope name* dataset


*Last update 2016-01-27


ArcGIS metadata properties
Metadata format ArcGIS 1.0


Created in ArcGIS for the item 2008-11-19 17:37:36
Last modified in ArcGIS for the item 2016-01-27 09:49:45


Automatic updates
Have been performed Yes
Last update 2016-01-27 09:49:45


Metadata Contacts 

Metadata contact
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey, EROS Data Center
Contact's position Customer Services Representative
Contact's role  point of contact


Contact information
Phone
Voice 605-594-6551
TDD/TTY 605-594-6933
Fax 605-594-6589

Address
Type both
Delivery point U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
City Sioux Falls
Administrative area SD
Postal code 57198
Country US
e-mail addresscustserv@edcmail.cr.usgs.gov