USGS 2005 GAP Landcover

SDE Raster Dataset

Tags
North Dakota, USA, Vegetation and Land Cover, farming, imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, geoscientificInformation, environment

Description

A vegetation and land cover map for North Dakota was created as part of the North Dakota Gap Analysis Project for the U. S. Geological Survey's National Gap Analysis Program. Vegetation and land cover was mapped from a multi-temporal analysis of May, July, and September Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired from August 1992 to September 1998. Natural and semi-natural vegetation categories are cross-walked and described with reference to the National Vegetation Classification System. Digital National Wetland Inventory data produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was used in mapping wetlands.

Summary

The goal of the National Gap Analysis program is to improve biodiversity policy and planning by making digital maps and associated databases for vegetation and land cover, vertebrate species distribution, and land stewardship available to decision makers. Gap Analysis uses digital maps in the geographic information system overlay process to describe the distribution of vegetation and land cover types and vertebrate species relative to the distribution of public lands and their management objectives. The vegetation and land cover map is a driving variable in the production of potential distribution maps for terrestrial vertebrates. Terrestrial vertebrate species and natural vegetation land cover types not "adequately represented" on public lands are identified as "gaps" in existing conservation efforts.

Credits

Larry Strong, U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Use limitations

The data provide a coarse generalized abstraction of the geographic distribution of land cover circa 1998 for North Dakota. These data were produced for an intended application at the state and at the national scale by aggregation of the data with GAP analysis products from other states. These data may not be appropriate for local or large-scale analyses (>1:100,000 scale). Notification of the use of the data and acknowledgement of the U.S. Geological Survey would be appreciated in products derived from the use of the data.

Scale Range

Metadata 

Topics and Keywords 

Themes or categories of the resource  geoscientificInformation, environment, imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, farming


Content type  Downloadable Data


Place keywords  North Dakota, USA

Theme keywords  Vegetation and Land Cover, farming, imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, geoscientificInformation, environment

Thesaurus
Title National Vegetation Classification System




Citation 

Title USGS 2005 GAP Landcover
Publication date 2004-08-01


Presentation formats* digital table


Other citation details
The raster geographic data layer described by this document is documented more fully in the final report produced from North Dakota Gap Analysis. To learn more the North Dakota GAP land cover raster and the project as a whole, refer to: Strong, L.L., T.H. Sklebar, and K.E. Kermes. North Dakota Gap Analysis Project. Final Report. U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, ND. In preparation.



Citation Contacts 

Responsible party
Organization's name Larry Strong, U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Contact's role  originator


Resource Details 

Dataset languages  English (UNITED STATES)


Status  completed
Spatial representation type* grid


*Processing environment Microsoft Windows 7 Version 6.1 (Build 7601) Service Pack 1; Esri ArcGIS 10.3.1.4959


Credits
*Name NDHUB.LANDCLASS_GAP_2005

Extents 

Extent
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Beginning date 1992-08-01
Ending date 1998-09-01

Extent
Geographic extent
Bounding rectangle
Extent type  Extent used for searching
*West longitude -104.496115
*East longitude -96.177201
*North latitude 49.203815
*South latitude 45.693974
*Extent contains the resource Yes

Extent in the item's coordinate system
*West longitude 98673.906905
*East longitude 705753.906905
*South latitude 5072983.301253
*North latitude 5450113.301253
*Extent contains the resource Yes

Resource Points of Contact 

Point of contact
Individual's name Larry Strong
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Contact's position Wildlife Biologist
Contact's role  point of contact


Contact information
Phone
Voice 701 253-5524

Address
Delivery point U.S. Geological Survey
Delivery point 8711 37th Street SE
City Jamestown
Administrative area North Dakota
Postal code 58401
Country US
e-mail addressLarry_Strong@usgs.gov



Resource Maintenance 

Resource maintenance
Update frequency  unknown


Resource Constraints 

Legal constraints
Limitations of use
The State of North Dakota has compiled this data according to conventional cartographic standards, using what is thought to be the most reliable information available. This data is intended to make results of research available at the earliest possible date, but is not intended to constitute final or formal publication. The State of North Dakota makes every effort to provide virus-free files but does not guarantee uncorrupted files. The State of North Dakota does not guarantee this data to be free from errors, inaccuracies, or viruses, and disclaims any responsibility or liability for interpretations or decisions based on this data.

Security constraints
Classification system none


Additional restrictions
none



Constraints
Limitations of use
The data provide a coarse generalized abstraction of the geographic distribution of land cover circa 1998 for North Dakota. These data were produced for an intended application at the state and at the national scale by aggregation of the data with GAP analysis products from other states. These data may not be appropriate for local or large-scale analyses (>1:100,000 scale). Notification of the use of the data and acknowledgement of the U.S. Geological Survey would be appreciated in products derived from the use of the data.

Spatial Reference 

ArcGIS coordinate system
*Type Projected
*Geographic coordinate reference GCS_North_American_1983
*Projection NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_14N
*Coordinate reference details
Projected coordinate system
Well-known identifier 26914
X origin -5120900
Y origin -9998100
XY scale 450445547.3910538
XY tolerance 0.001
High precision true
Latest well-known identifier 26914
Well-known text PROJCS["NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_14N", GEOGCS["GCS_North_American_1983", DATUM["D_North_American_1983", SPHEROID["GRS_1980", 6378137.0, 298.257222101]], PRIMEM["Greenwich", 0.0], UNIT["Degree", 0.0174532925199433]], PROJECTION["Transverse_Mercator"], PARAMETER["False_Easting", 500000.0], PARAMETER["False_Northing", 0.0], PARAMETER["Central_Meridian", -99.0], PARAMETER["Scale_Factor", 0.9996], PARAMETER["Latitude_Of_Origin", 0.0], UNIT["Meter", 1.0], AUTHORITY["EPSG", 26914]]

Reference system identifier
*Value 26914
*Codespace EPSG
*Version 8.6.2


Data Quality 

Scope of quality information
Resource level  dataset




Data quality report - Conceptual consistency
Measure description
Inspection of the histogram for the raster revealed all pixels have valid numeric values as defined in the vegetation and land cover type classification scheme.





Data quality report - Completeness omission
Measure description
The data is a generalized abstraction of the existing vegetation and land cover for the spatial extent of North Dakota at a spatial grain of 0.09 ha (30m x 30m pixels). Vegetation and land cover for the state was produced by mosaicking ten independently derived land cover maps corresponding to ten subsections of the state with each subsection being defined by a unique combination of the May, July, and September Thematic Mapper images used in the analysis. The land cover classification system is has two levels. The first level has eight physionomically defined land cover categories. The second level is a first approximation to aggregations of floristically defined plant communites at the alliance level of the National Vegetation Classification System. Thematic detail is variable across the state because the availability of training data varied by subsection and was not available for all vegetation and land cover types for each subsection, and the difficulty of discriminating among plant community types using spectral reflectance measurements. Thematic detail at the physiogonmic level is consistent across the state with the exception of the shrubland category which is absent for some image subsections. For image subsections without a shrubland category, shrublands are inclusions in the prairie land cover category. Thematic detail at the floristic level is variable across the state. For example, woodlands are represented in all of the image subsections, but information about the floristics of woodlands is variable among image subsections. This means that the spatial distribution of woodland floristic categories such a Bur Oak Woodland or Aspen Woodland is incomplete.





Data quality report - Quantitative attribute accuracy
Measure description
An accuracy assessment of the land cover map is in progress with an expected completion date is 31 December 2004. Data for a probablity-based accuracy assessment of the vegetation and land cover map were colleted in 2002. The sample design was a stratified random single-stage cluster sample of 253 square mile sample units selected with unequal probability among eight strata defined by a combination of four physiographic regions and four anthropogenic land cover proportion classes. Ground surveys and aerial photographs were used to create exhaustive land cover maps for the sample units.





Data quality report - Absolute external positional accuracy
Dimension horizontal


Measure description
Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired as part of the Multi-Resoultion Land Characterization (MRLC) program were precision terrain-corrected using 3-arc-second digital terrain elevation data and georegistered using ground control points by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. Images obtained from other sources were georegisted to the MRLC images. Root mean square registation error of all images was less than 1 pixel ( 30 meters).





Data quality report - Absolute external positional accuracy
Dimension vertical


Measure description
These data do not include a vertical component.





Lineage 

Process step
Description
A May, July, and September Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper image was acquired for each of 16 orbit path and row combinations required for complete coverage of North Dakota. The dates of all images for rows 27 and 28 in path 31, rows 26, 27, and 28 in path 32, and rows 27 and 28 in path 34 were identical within the path and the data were combined for the analysis. This reduced the number of path and row defined data sets from 16 to ten (path 30 row 27, path 30 row 28, path 31 row 26, path 31 rows 27 and 28, path 32 rows 26,27 and 28, path 33 row 26, path 33 row 27, path 33 row 28, path 34 row 26, and path 34 rows 27 and 28). The TM data for a path and row was clipped to the common spatial extent among the three dates of imagery. A vegetation and land cover classification was derived independently for each of the ten subsections of ND. The vegetation and land cover database for the state was produced by mosaicking the ten independently derived land cover maps. In the areas of overlap between the subsections, priority was given the path and row combination that had the most recent May TM image. The analysis of the TM imagery for each of the ten path and row subsections in ND was conducted using a sequential series of analyses in a hierarchal fashion. The analysis began with the discrimination of general land cover categories with similar physiognomy and progressed, for the natural and semi-natural land cover categories, to the discrimination of more detailed vegetation categories within the general land cover categories. A water mask was constructed for each image using a threshold on TM channel 5. A water mask for the path and row was created by combining the individual image water masks using Boolean logic and identifying pixels that were identified as water on two or more dates. Requiring a pixel to be identified as water on a minimum of two image dates before it was included in the water mask for the path and row reduced water commission errors. Cloud shadows and other commission errors in the water mask were manually excluded. Water remaining after incorporating National Wetlands Inventory data into the land cover classification was assigned to a generic wetland category. Cloud masks were created to exclude cloud pixels from training data. Cloud masks were created using a threshold on a TM channel 3 -TM channel 1 difference image, a threshold on the TM channel 1 image, and manual editing. Cloud masks were also used to determine if there were locations within ND which had cloud cover on all of the TM images and thus would require additional imagery to map the land cover or the inclusion of a cloud category in the land cover classification. Inspection of cloud masks in conjunction with extents of the TM images, including areas of overlap between paths and rows, revealed that it would be possible to map land cover for all areas of the state without acquiring additional images or the need for a cloud category. Wetlands are an important land cover component in ND, particularly in the Prairie Pothole Region. Many of the small temporary and seasonal wetlands in ND are small relative to the pixel size of the TM imagery and mapping these wetlands using only TM imagery would result in high omission errors for wetlands particularly if the imagery was acquired at a time when the wetlands were dry or have minimal surface water. Because of the difficulty mapping small wetlands using TM imagery, wetlands for the land cover database were extracted from digital National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data despite the fact that NWI data for North Dakota were developed from aerial photography acquired during the period 1979-1984. A loss of wetlands was observed along the Missouri River and current land cover for these areas was identified from analysis of TM imagery. Wetland losses may have occurred in other areas but were not detected. There also appeared to be some gains in wetlands related to a wet period in the mid 1990's. Areas of water identified from analysis of TM imagery but not included in the NWI data were mapped as a generic wetland category. NWI for the Prairie Pothole Region of ND (areas to the east and north of the Missouri river) was obtained from the Region 6 U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service Habitat and Population Evaluation Team and NWI for areas west and south of the Missouri river was obtained from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory. Data were quality checked for valid wetland attribute codes as defined in the Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater habitats of the United States (Cowardin et al. 1979) and an exhaustive list of the attribute codes was created. For our purpose, we aggregated wetlands to seven wetland categories on the basis of the attributes at the system and class levels, and the water regime modifier. The seven categories are Lacustrine (System code L), Riverine (System code R), Palustrine Forested (System code P and subsystem code FO), Palustrine Scrub-shrub(System code P and subsystem code SS), Palustrine Semi-permanent (System code P, subsystem code not FO or SS, water regime code F), Palustrine Seasonal (System code P, subsystem code not FO or SS, water regime code C,D, or E), and Palustrine Temporary (System code P, subsystem code not FO or SS, water regime code A, B). There were a small number of Palustrine wetlands where the subsystem code is not FO or SS, and the water regime code is not A,B,C, D,E or F. Palustrine wetlands where subsystem code is not FO or SS with water regime G (intermittently exposed), H (permanently flooded),or K (artificially flooded) were classified as lacustrine wetlands. Wetlands which were complexes of 2 or more types are grouped for our purposes on the basis of the first wetland code. For example, a PSS/EMA wetland is identified as Palustrine Scrub-shrub. The NWI vectors were converted to rasters with 5 m pixels and these rasters were resampled to rasters with 30 m pixels and spatial extents corresponding to the appropriate TM image. The conversion from vector to raster overestimated the area of wetlands particularly for small wetlands. The two step vector to land cover data base raster conversion process reduced the overestimation of the area of wetlands to approximately 4 percent. Developed land cover categories were extracted from the ND National Land Cover data base. The four developed land cover categories included in the ND GAP land cover data base were Low Intensity Residential, High Intensity Residential, Commercial/Industrial/Transportation and Urban/Recreational Grasslands. Recent urban development in Fargo, Bismarck, Grand Forks and Minot and an omission of urban land cover in Williston, ND was mapped to create an additional developed land cover category. Multiple binary cropland not-cropland classification tree analyses were performed using different combinations of image dates and spectral channel subsets. Different combinations of image dates were used because of the wide range in the dates of the TM images for some paths and rows. For example, the TM images available for path 30 row 28 were included 4 May 1997, a 26 July 1998, and a 17 September 1994. The multiple binary classifications for cropland were combined to create a single image depicting all possible combinations of the cropland classifications. The digital number for a pixel in this image indexed the co-occurrence of cropland pixels among the binary classifications, e.g., pixels identified as cropland on all classifications, pixels identified as cropland on all classifications except one, croplands on different pairs of classifications, croplands on only one classification, etc. This cropland image was inspected by comparison with color composites of the TM imagery, digital orthophotographs, and the training data. Digital numbers in the image that contained a mixture of crop and not-cropland pixels were identified, and a kmeans clustering and maximum likelihood classification performed in an attempt to reduce the confusion for cropland in those spectral classes. A cropland mask was created by assigning the digital numbers in the cropland image to either cropland or not-cropland. Next, the cropland mask created in the previous step was combined with a cropland mask extracted from the ND National Land Cover dataset, and a cropland mask from either a Ducks Unlimited/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service land cover classification (east and north of the Missouri River) or a U.S. Forest Service land cover classification (west and south of the Missouri River) to depict all possible combinations of cropland as defined by the three sources. This image was inspected for cropland omission and commission errors in the cropland mask created in the previous step and the cropland mask was modified to minimize the errors. Cropland commission errors for sparsely-vegetated badlands and sand dunes for path 30 row 28, path 32 rows 26,27,28, and path 34 rows 27 and 28 were reduced using polygons from the Ecoregions of North Dakota and Geologic Map of North Dakota vectors. Next binary woodland not-woodland classification tree analyses were performed in a manner similar to that described for croplands. Extensive use of digital orthophotographs was used to inspect the woodland classifications for omission and commission errors. If sufficient training data was available, a woodland community type analysis was performed using classification tree analysis. Otherwise, an unsupervised Kmeans cluster analysis and maximum likelihood classification was performed for the woodland mask and correspondence of spectral classes to woodland types was determined from landscape position and association information as determined from manual interpretation of color composites from the TM imagery, digital orthophotographs, and statistical summaries of the association of spectral classes with training samples. Ponderosa pine was mapped using conifer forest spectral classes with township, range, and section information for the four largest stands described in Potter, L.D. and D.L. Green, 1964, Ecology of Ponderosa Pine in Western North Dakota, Ecology 45:10-22. The single stand of limber pine was mapped using conifer forest spectral classes with township, range, and section information for the stand described in Potter, L.D. and D.L. Green, 1964, Ecology of a northeastern outlying stand of Pinus flexilis, Ecology 45:866-868. Next binary planted grassland not-planted grassland classification tree analyses were performed in a manner similar to that described for croplands and woodlands. In an effort to further reduce classification errors between planted grassland and natural grassland (prairie) due to their similarity in physiognomic structure and land uses, a Kmeans cluster analysis and Maximum likelihood classification were performed for pixels assigned to the planted grass mask. Statistical summaries of the association of spectral classes with planted grassland and natural grassland training samples and manual inspection of the spatial patterns of the spectral classes were to identify spectral classes as planted grassland, mixtures of planted grassland and natural grassland, and natural grassland. Spectral classes identified as planted grassland were used to create a planted grassland mask and spectral classes identified as mixtures of planted grassland and natural grassland were combined to create a mask for analysis of prairie land cover categories. Pixels remaining after constructing the cropland, woodland, planted grassland, wetlands, water, and developed land masks were assigned to the prairie land cover category. An analysis of prairie community types was performed using classification tree analyses with training data from range inventories of North Dakota School Lands managed by the North Dakota State Land Board. The assignment of classification tree nodes to prairie plant communities was evaluated by reference to landscape position and association as determined from manual inspection of TM color composites, digital orthophotographs, and statistical summaries of the association of nodes with prairie plant community and planted grassland training samples. Changes in assignment of prairie community type labels to classification tree nodes were made when evaluation of the classification suggested a different prairie plant community type or planted grassland would be more appropriate label for the node. There was insufficient School Land training data for a classification tree analysis of prairie plant communities for path 30 row 27, path 30 row 28, and path 31 row 26. A Kmeans cluster analysis and maximum likelihood classification was performed for path 30 row 28 and prairie plant community labels were assigned to the spectral classes by reference to prairie plant community maps created by the North Dakota Natural Heritage Program for Richland, Sargent, Barnes and Ransom counties in North Dakota. A prairie plant community analysis was not attempted for path 30 row 27 and path 31 row 26 because of the low abundance of prairies in this portion of the state and insufficient data training data. All prairie land cover in path 30 row 27 and path 31 row 26 was assigned to a single prairie land cover category. Development of a shrubland land cover category was challenging in part due to the difficulty defining training areas for small, sparsely distributed, and irregular shaped shrub patches and hence a small sample of training polygons and in part due to the spectral similarity of shrublands with other land cover categories. Because of these difficulties, we were not able to create a shrubland category for all areas of the state. The shrubland category was developed, when possible, during the analysis of the woodland and prairie land cover categories. Spectral classes for the shrubland category were identified when they were detected during the process of inspecting the woodland classifications using the digital orthophotos and using a threshold on a near infrared/red ratio for the July TM image for areas identified as prairie. The logic behind the use of the July near infrared/red ratio procedure was that the grass and forb component of the vegetation would be experiencing a water deficit at this date, while the shrub component with its deeper roots would have access to water and would have a canopy with more actively growing green leaves than grasses and forbs. These phenologic conditions did not appear to be met for many of the July images as attempts to define a shrubland category resulted in excessive shrubland commission error and hence a shrubland land cover category was not created. A shrubland land cover category was developed for paths 34 rows 27 and 28, path 33 row 27, path 33 row 28, path 31 rows 27 and 28, and path 31 row 26. The shrubland category for path 31 rows 27 and 28 was extended into the overlap areas for path 30 row 28 and path 32 rows 27 and 28. Refinement of a shrubland land cover category should be a high priorty in future land cover maps. The shrubland land cover category was partioned into an upland deciduous shrubland category, a sagebrush shrubland category (only for areas in path 34 rows 27 and 28), and a lowland shrubland category. The vegetation and land cover database for the state was produced by mosaicking the ten independently derived land cover maps. In the areas of overlap between the subsections, priority was given the path and row combination that had the most recent May TM image. Inspection of the state land cover mosaic revealed a 7.4 sq km area at the intersection of path 31 row 26, path 30 row 27 and the state boundary with Minnesota that did not have land cover data. Land cover data from the ND 1992 National Land Cover data set corresponding to the missing data location was crosswalked to the categories of the ND Gap land cover database and inserted into the state land cover mosaic to complete the coverage for ND. Five post-classification stratifications using ancillary data were performed to increase the information content of the land cover map and to reduce land cover classification errors. A Floodplain Woodland category was created by intersecting a binary mask created from the Geologic Map of ND with the Woodland land cover category. The initial binary geologic mask was created from two geologic categories, Holocene River Sediment, Qor, and Holocene to Pre-Wisconsin uncollapsed river sediment, Qcrf. The initial intersection of this mask with a binary image of the woodland land cover category revealed numerous commission errors for floodplain woodland. The binary geologic map was manually edited to exclude these commission errors. A final floodplain woodland land cover category was constructed after several iterations of manually editing the binary geologic map and inspection of its intersection with the woodland land cover category. An area in the northern portion of the Glacial Lake Agassiz physiographic region near Grand Forks, ND, was mapped to saline prairie land cover category by intersecting a binary mask of soil map unit ND073 from the ND State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) data base with planted grassland and prairie grassland land cover categories. The area of the sand prairie land cover category was increased by intersecting a binary mask of the prairie land cover category for path 31 rows 27 and 28 and path 31 row 26 with a binary mask of the Holocene Windblown Sand, Qod, category from the Geologic Map of ND. A fescue prairie land cover category was created in north-western ND by intersecting a binary mask of the Bluestem - Needlegrass-Wheatwass prairie land cover category from path 34 row 26 with a binary mask of a Fescue Prairie land cover category developed from regression tree analyses predicting the relative abundance of Heterostipa curtiseta and Agropyron dasystachyum from environmental variables (unpublished data presented at a poster session at the 55th Annual Meeting of the Society for Range Management, L. L. Strong, Integration of GIS and remote sensing for mapping rangeland plant communities of the Northern Great Plains). The prairie land cover category was reduced by changing pixels classified as prairie to planted grasslands if the pixels were classified as cropland on five or more years in a six year land cover data base constructed by the ND Agricultural Statistical Service.





Source data
Description
The three developed land cover categories, low intensity residential, high intensity residential, and commercial/industrial/transporation and the urban/recreational grasses land cover categories of the North Dakota National Land Cover Data Set were used in the mapping of these land cover types in the North Dakota Gap Analysis Land Cover.



Source citation
Title North Dakota National Land Cover Data Set


FGDC geospatial presentation format  digital raster


Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator


Resource location online
Locationhttp://landcover.usgs.gov/natllandcover.asp



Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Beginning date 1987-01-01
Ending date 1995-01-01



Source data
Description
Used in the mapping of wetland land cover types.



Resolution of the source data
Scale denominator 24

Source citation
Title National Wetlands Inventory Data


FGDC geospatial presentation format  digital vector


Other citation details
Wilen, B.O. and M.K Bates. The US Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory Project. Vegetatio 118:153-169.



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory
Contact's role  originator


Resource location online
Locationhttp://wetlands.fws.gov



Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Beginning date 1979-01-01
Ending date 1984-01-01



Source data
Description
Used in the production of the vegetatation and land cover map.



Source citation
Title Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper Images


FGDC geospatial presentation format  raster digital image


Other citation details
Path 33 Row 26



Responsible party
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center
Contact's role  originator




Extent of the source data
Description
ground condition

Temporal extent
Date and time 1993-05-14

Temporal extent
Date and time 1996-07-09

Temporal extent
Date and time 1995-09-25



Distribution 

Distributor
Contact information
Individual's name Larry Strong
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Contact's position Wildlife Biologist
Contact's role  distributor


Contact information
Phone
Voice 701 253-5524

Address
e-mail addressLarry_Strong@usgs.gov



Ordering process



Distribution format
*Name SDE Raster Dataset


Fields 

Details for object NDHUB.SDE_VAT_30 
*Type Table
*Row count 40


Field ObjectID
 
*Alias OBJECTID
*Data type OID
*Width 4
*Precision 10
*Scale 0
Field description
Internal feature number.

Description source
ESRI

Description of values
Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.





Field Value
 
*Alias VALUE
*Data type Integer
*Width 4
*Precision 10
*Scale 0
Field description
numeric code for land cover categories

Description source
ND GAP ANALYSIS

List of values
Value 1
Description 1 - Cropland . Lands tilled and planted to annual herbaceous small grain and row crops. Common small grain crops include wheat, barley, and oats. Examples of row crops include corn, sunflowers, soybeans, sugar beets, and potatoes. The land cover category includes both non-irrigated and irrigated crops. These lands have a bare soil phase during the growing season that generally occurs in early spring when most crops are planted. The bare soil phase is unique to croplands and is important for accurate discrimination of croplands from other land cover types using remotely sensed imagery.


Value 2
Description 2 - Planted herbaceous perennials. Lands planted to perennial herbaceous grasses, forbs, or grass-legume mixtures. Often the species planted are introduced species such as smooth brome, crested wheatgrass, alfalfa and sweet clover although some plantings are native grass species. Most lands are used to produce forage crops for harvest or for grazing by domestic livestock. This class includes lands enrolled in retired cropland conservation programs that are planted to grass and legume species. In addition to planted fields, smooth brome has invaded and established stands in many native grasslands and some of these are likely mapped as planted grasslands. Leafy spurge invasions in native grassland may also be mapped as this class.


Value 10
Description 10 - Wet-Mesic Tall Grass Prairie. Low lying lands of depressions and drainage ways with a high water table and high water availability. Characteristic native grasses include Spartina pectina, Calamagrostis canadensis, Calamagrostis stricta, Carex lanuginosa, Andropogon gerardii and Panicum virgatum. Phalaris arundinacea is a common non-native species in some stands. This map unit corresponds most closely with the concepts of the Andropogon gerardii - (Calamagrostis canadensis, Panicum virgatum) herbaceous alliance of the NVCS and the wet meadow and subirrigated range sites of the NRCS. Some stands of this category are mapped as palustrine temporary wetlands by the U.S FWS National Wetlands Inventory.


Value 11
Description 11 - Mesic Tall Grass Prairie. Nearly level lowlands, depressions and lower slopes in moderately rolling uplands than receive runoff from the adjacent landscape. Soils are deep, moderately well drained with variable texture and high available water capacity. Dominant grasses are Andropogon gerardii, Sorghastrum natans, Panicum virgatum and Schizachyrium scoparium. This map unit corresponds most closely with the concepts of the Andropogon gerardii - Hesperostipa spartea - Sporobolus heterolepis herbaceous vegetation association of the Andropogon gerardii - (Sorghastrum nutans) herbaceous alliance of the NVCS and the subirrigated range sites of the NRCS.


Value 12
Description 12 - Mesic Tall and Mixed Grass Prairie. The species composition of this map unit is heavily influenced by grazing history and moisture availability. On the most mesic sites with light grazing, Andropogon geradii and other tall grasses can be abundant. As water availability decreases or herbivory increases, mid grasses such as Pascopyrum smithii, Nassela viridula, and Bromus inermis increase in importance. Under heavy continuous grazing Poa pratensis and Bouteloua gracilis can dominate the sites. Landscape positions include swales, depressions, and footslopes with increased water availability from runon from adjacent lands. This map unit corresponds to the concepts of the Andropogon gerardii - Schizachyrium scoparium Northern Plains Herbaceous Vegetation association, the Pascopyrum smithii - Nassella viridula Herbaceous Vegetation association, and the Poa pratensis semi-natural herbaceous alliance of the NVCS and the overflow range site of the NRCS.


Value 13
Description 13 - Bluestem - Needlegrass-Wheatgrass transition prairie. A transition prairie between tall grass prairie to the east and mixed grass prairie to the west generally occurring on soils derived from glacial materials (Clements 1920; Shantz 1923; Weaver and Fitzpatrick 1934; Weaver and Clements 1938; Kuchler 1964; Dix and Smeins 1967; Stewart 1975; Whitman and Barker 1994). Common species are Schizachyrium scoparium, Hesperostipa spartea, Nassella viridula, Andropogon gerardii, Panicum virgatum, Pascopyrum smithii, Elymus trachycaulus, Hesperostipa comata, Bouteloua gracilis, Poa prantensis and Bromus inermis. Dominance by a single species typically occurs only over small areas with most stands less than 0.1 ha in size. The complex distribution of species over short distances is believed to be largely determined by variability in plant available moisture and nutrients (Dix and Smeins 1967; Barnes et al. 1983). An outstanding feature of glacial till parent materials is their variability due to the diverse ways by which the debris was laid down, of differences in the chemical composition of the original materials and of fluctuation in the grinding action of the ice. Soils heterogeneity occurs over short distances with textures varying from sands, silts, sand, and clays. This map unit is most closely aligned with the concepts of the Andropogon gerardii - Sporobolus heterolepis - Schizachyrium scoparium - Pascopyrum smithii Herbaceous Vegetation association and the Schizachyrium scoparium - Bouteloua curtipendula - Hesperostipa spartea - (Pascopyrum smithii) Herbaceous Vegetation association of the NVCS and the thin upland range site of the NRCS.


Value 14
Description 14 - Wheatgrass Prairie. This vegetation occurs on nearly level to rolling landscapes with deep, well drained, medium to fine textured soils. Dominant graminoid species include Pascopyrum smithii, Nassella viridula, Hesperostipa comata, and Bouteloua gracilis. Distichlis spicata and Opuntia fragilis are often common and diagnostic species of sites with saline-alkali soils. Artemisia tridentata spp. wyomingensis and Artemisia cana can occur as scattered shrubs contributing little cover in some stands in the Missouri plateau physiographic region. This map unit corresponds to the concepts of the Pascopyrum smithii herbaceous alliance of the NVCS. The four associations within the alliance include Pascopyrum smithii - Bouteloua gracilis - Carex filifolia Herbaceous Vegetation association, Pascopyrum smithii - Hesperostipa comata Central Mixedgrass Herbaceous Vegetation association, , Pascopyrum smithii - Nassella viridula Herbaceous Vegetation, and Pascopyrum smithii - (Elymus trachycaulus) Clay Pan Herbaceous Vegetation. This map unit corresponds to concepts of the NRCS silty, clay, and clay pan range sites.


Value 15
Description 15 - Needlegrass prairie. Dominant grasses are Hesperostipa comata, Bouteloua gracilis, and upland Carex spp. Pascopyrum smithii and Calamovilfa longifolia are abundant locally. This vegetation occurs on nearly level to rolling landscapes with shallow to deep, moderately coarse textured soils, with moderate permeability and low to moderate available water capacity. This map unit corresponds to the concepts of the Hesperostipa comata - Bouteloua gracilis Alliance of the NVCS and the sandy and shallow-to-gravel rangesites of the NRCS.


Value 16
Description 16- Little Bluestem Bunch Grass Prairie. This map unit represents a heterogenous plant communitiy where Schizachyrium scoparium is a common and conspicuous species. Other common graminoid species include Carex filifolia, Hesperostipa comata, and Calamovilfa longifolia. In western ND some stands, particulary on north facing slopes, may have small thickets and scattered inviduals of Juniperus horizontalis, Rhus trilobatus, Shepardia argentea, Artemisia cana, Amelanchier alnifolia, Yucca glauca, and occasionally individuals of Juniperus scopulorum or Fraxinus pennsylvanica. The community occurs primarily on steep to moderately steep slopes on the sides and crests of hills. Soils are shallow, of coarse to moderately fine texture, overlaying sandstone, shale or siltstone parent materials that restrict rooting depth. This map unit corresponds to the concepts of the Schizachyrium scoparium - Bouteloua (curtipendula, gracilis) - Carex filifolia Herbaceous Vegetation association, the Schizachyrium scoparium - Muhlenbergia cuspidata Herbaceous Vegetation association, and the Juniperus horizontalis / Schizachyrium scoparium Dwarf-shrubland assocation of the NVCS. Hansen et al. (1984) described a Schizachyrium scoparium/Carex filifolia habitat type and a Juniperus horizontalis/Andropgon scoparius habitat type in Thedore Roosevelt National Park. Whitman (1979) described an Schizachyrium scoparium-Hesperostipa comata- Carex filfolia and a Hesperostipa comata-Muhlenbergia-Carex stenophylla communites similar in concept to the map unit. Redmann (1975) in a study within the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in western ND reported Schizachyrium scoparium was the dominant species of stands on coarse textured soils occurring on upper slope positions but also on sandy, rolling uplands west of the Missouri River. Although, generally associated with relatively coarse textured soils, Hegstad (1973) reported Schizachyrium scoparium was a common species on hill slopes of clay soils in northwestern ND. The map unit corresponds to the concepts of the NRCS shallow and very shallow range sites.


Value 17
Description 17 - Fescue Prairie. Heterostipa curtiseta and Agropyron dasystachyum are diagnostic grass species for this land cover type type. Cosby (1965) reported local areas dominated by Festuca scabrella in the northern 1/3 of North Dakota with the best examples of the community located on Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge in the north western ND on north facing slopes and on soils of medium texture. Hegstad (1973) reported Festuca scabrella was present on loamy soil on the Missouri Coteau in northwest ND and was the dominant plant in some areas where no heavy grazing had occurred. In a personnel communication in 1992 with Karen Smith, refuge manager for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, she reported areas dominated by Festuca scabrella were uncommon. Coupland (1992) reported that abundance of Festuca scaberlla can be greatly reduced under moderate and heavy grazing which he speculated was related to its erect growth habitat and the ease with which close grazing can remove a large proportion of the photosynthetic tissue. Coupland (1992) also reported that the rarity of flowering stalks of Festuca scabrella in some years results in the grass being confused with other species of mixed prairie, particularly Stipa curtiseta and as a consequence the grassland is often not recognized as being distinctive from the mixed prairie. This prairie land cover category was identified primarily on the basis of range condition inventories on State School lands in northwestern ND where Heterostipa curtiseta and Agropyron dasystachyum were identified as important components of the forage biomass on a number of the properties. The map unit corresponds to the concepts of the Festuca altaica herbaceous alliance and the Festuca campestris herbaceous alliance of the NVCS and the thin upland range site of the NVCS.


Value 18
Description 18 - Sand Prairie. Diagnostic grasses include Calamovilfa longifolia, Andropogon hallii, Hesperostipa comata, and Bouteloua gracilis. Stands of this map unit occur on poorly to moderately well-developed, well or excessively drained coarse textured sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam soils. Topography ranges from nearly level to hilly and choppy wind-worked sand dunes. There is little runoff or evaporation because of the high permeability of the soil. Soil near the surface is consequently dry throughout much of the year, but moisture is present further down, favoring deep-rooting species. The map unit corresponds to the concepts of the Andropogon hallii herbaceous alliance, Calamovilfa longifolia herbaceous alliance, and Schizachyrium scoparium-(Sporobolus cryptandrus) herbaceous alliance of the NVCS and the sand range site of the NRCS.


Value 19
Description 19 -Saline Prairie. Characteristic grasses include Distichlis spicata, Hordeum jubatum, Puccinellia nuttalliana and Spartina gracilis. This map unit occurs in shallow basins and lake plains, low terraces and bottomlands along streams that receive additional water from seepage and/or runon with deep, poorly drained, medium and fine textured saline and alkaline soils. The map unit corresponds to concepts of the Pascopyrum smithii temporarily flooded herbaceous alliance, Distichlis spicata - (Hordeum jubatum) temporarily flooded herbaceous alliance, and Hordeum jubatum temporaily flooded herbaceous alliance of the NVCS and the saline lowland range site of the NRCS. Some areas of this land cover category may be included in the palustrine temporarily flooded wetland land cover category from U.S. FWS National Wetlands Inventory data.


Value 20
Description 20 - Upland Deciduous Shrubland. Upland areas dominated by shrubs typically occur on sites where available soil moisture is greater than sites with prairie land cover types and less than sites with woodland land cover types. Sites include well-drained depressions and riparian areas, north and east facing slopes, and woodland edges. Stands are typically small and vary greatly in shrub density and species composition. The following species are dominants in different stands. Symphoricarpos occidentalis occupies upland depressions, mesic swales, and flood plains. Shepherdia argentea, Prunus virginiana, Amelanchier alnifolia, Crataegus chrysocarpa, Elaeagnus commutata, Prunus americana often occur as small, dense thickets in mesic swales and aspects, and the outer edges of floodplains and woodlands. Rhus glabara occurs on the edges of Bur Oak woodlands in eastern ND. Rhus trilobata occupies ridges, hills, and slopes associated with scoria outcrops in south western ND. Toxicodendron radicans often obtains greatest abundance on sandy soils. This map unit corresponds to the concepts of the deciduous shrubland alliances of the NVCS for the species identified above.


Value 21
Description 21 - Lowland Deciduous Shrubland. Depression and riparian areas dominated by shrubs with a high water table and high water availability. This map unit includes lands mapped by the U.S. FWS National Wetland Inventory as Palustrine scrub-shrub. Salix interior and Salix amygdaloides are common shrub species in this map unit. Corylus cornuta, a common understory species of Aspen and Bur Oak woodlands, occurs as dense riparian shrublands in Pembina Hills. This map unit corresponds to the concepts of the Salix (exugua, interior) temporarily flooded shrubland alliance and Cornus sericea-Salix spp. seasonally flooded shrubland alliance of the NVCS.


Value 22
Description 22 - Sagebrush Shrubland. Evergreen shrublands dominated by Artemisia cana and Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis. Artemisia cana stands are best developed on flood plains and river terraces on soils derived from alluvial deposits (Hanson et. al. 1984., Wali et al. 1980). Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis often occurs as smaller stands on older, higher benches above the Artemisia cana on the floodplains. Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis stands are best developed in extreme south western ND on rolling to hilly topography. Both species of sagebrush occur with sparse to low canopy coverage on nearly level to rolling uplands in southwestern North Dakota. Both sagebrush species also occurs as small patches in the complex topography of the Little Missouri Badlands. Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis is most common on small terraces or narrow benches that parallel the contours of hills while Artemisia cana archives its greatest abundance in and along drainages. Symporicarpos occidentalis is a common shrub in Artemisia cana floodplains. Common native herbaceous species include Pascopyrum smithii and Hesperostipa comata. Euphorbia esula has invaded some silver sagebrush stands. This map unit corresponds to the concepts of the Artemisa cana shrubland alliance, Artemesia tridentata spp. wyomingensis shrubland alliance, Artemisia cana temporarily flooded shrubland alliance, Artemisia cana spp. cana herbaceous alliance, and the Artemisia tridentata spp. wyomingensis shrub herbaceous alliance of the NVCS.


Value 30
Description 30 - Ponderosa Pine Woodland. Woodlands dominated by Pinus ponderosa in the Little Missouri Badlands in southwestern ND represent the northeastern-most extent of the species geographical range. Stands occur on coarse, stratified outcroppings of sandstone or scoria. Associated tree and tall shrub species include Juniperus scopulorum, Fraxiunus pennsylvanica, Prunus virginiana and Shepherdia argentea. The low shrub community includes Rhus trilobata, Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Juniperus communis, and Juniperius horizontalis. Herbaceceous species include Schizachyrium scoparium, Bouteloua curtipendula, Muhlenbergia cuspidata, Carex filifolia, Pseudoroegneria spicata and Calamovilfa longifolia. This map unit corresponds to the Pinus ponderosa woodland alliance of the NVCS.


Value 31
Description 31 - Limber pine woodland. A single small stand of Pinus flexilis in association with Juniperus scopulorum located in the Little Missouri Badlands in southwestern ND. No other stands of Pinus flexilis are known in ND with the nearest stands for the species located about 160 miles to the south in the Black Hills of South Dakota. The small stand of Pinus flexilis may have been seeded, either accidentally or purposely, by Indians camping in the area before settlement by European man. Rhus trilobata is the dominant shrub. The map unit corresponds to the Pinus flexilis woodland alliance of the NVCS.


Value 32
Description 32 - Rocky Mountain Juniper Woodland. These woodlands occur primarly on steep north, north-east or north-west facing slopes and draws in the Little Missouri Badlands in western ND. Associated shrub species include Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Rhus trilobata, Prunus virginiana, Amelanchier alnifolia, Sheperdia argentea, Juniperus communis, Juniperus horizontalis, and Rosa woodsii. Characteristic herbaceous species include Oryzopsis micrantha and Achillea millefolium. Juniperus scopulorum is also common in cottowood stands along the Little Missiouri river and as a component of Pinus ponderosa wooodlands. The map unit corresponds to the Juniperus scopulorum woodland alliance of the NVCS.


Value 33
Description 33 - Mixed Deciduous and Conifer Woodland. Woodlands dominated by a mixture of Juniperus scopulorum and Fraxiunus pennsylvanica and occasionally Quercus macrocarpa. These sites generally have soil moisture availability intermediate between Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Juniperus scopulorum woodlands.


Value 34
Description 34 - Floodplain Woodland. Woodlands occurring on the floodplains of the Red River and its tributaries, the Sheyene River, James River, Souris River, Mouse River, Missouri River and its tributaries, and Little Missouri River. Dominant tree species include Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Ulmus americana, and Populus deltoides. Other associated tree species include Tilia americana, Quercus macrocarpa, Populus tremuloides, Acer negundo, Celtis occidentalis, and Juniperus scopulorum. This map unit includes wetlands mapped by the National Wetland Inventory as Palustrine forested. The variability and diversity of floodplain forests decreases from east to west. Structure and composition of the forest overstory are strongly related to stand age and horizontal and vertical position on the floodplain (Johnson et al. 1976). This map unit is corresponds to the concepts of several temporarily flooded forest and woodland alliances in the NVCS.


Value 35
Description 35 - Deciduous woodland. Woodlands dominated by mixtures of deciduous species including the native tree species Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Quercus macrocarpa, Populus tremulodies, Ulmus americana, and Populus deltoides and a wide variety of introduced deciduous and conifer tree species planted in shelterbelts, windbreaks and tree rows.


Value 36
Description 36 - Green Ash Woodland. Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Ulmus americana woodlands are the most common type of woodland in North Dakota. Stands occur on the upland edge of floodplain woodlands, in the bottom and sides of draws and ravines, and mesic, typically north and north east facing, slopes. Acer negundo is a common tree species in these woodlands. This map unit corresponds to the concepts of the Fraxinus pennsylvanica forest and woodland alliances of the NVCS.


Value 37
Description 37 - Aspen Woodland. Woodlands dominated by Populus tremuloides. The largest aspen woodlands are located in the Turtle Mountains, Killdeer Mountains, and a deltaic sand area of western Pembina County. Smaller widely scattered stands are located Sheyene and Souris sandhills, Pembina Hills, Missouri River breaks and Little Missouri River Badlands, and in association with wetlands where they reach their greatest importance in northwestern North Dakota. Aspen are an early successional species and have a relatively short live span compared to other trees in ND. Aspen is often transitory, gradually giving way to more shade tolerant species. Associated tree species include Quercus macrocarpa, Fraxinus pennsylvanica , Betula papyrifera, Populus balsamifera, and Acer negundo. Corylus cornuta, Prunus virginiana, and Amelanchier alnifolia are common shrubs in aspen woodlands. This map unit corresponds to the concepts of the Populus tremuloides forest and woodland alliances of the NVCS.


Value 38
Description 38 - Bur Oak Woodland. Woodlands dominated by Quercus macrocarpa generally occur in the bottom and sides of draws and ravines, and well drained upland areas on a wide range of slope angles and aspects. Populus tremulodies and Fraxinus pennsylvanica are associated tree species in some stands. Associated shrub species include Corylus cornuta, Prunus virginiana, Amelanchier alnifolia, and Symphoricarpos occidentalis. Carex pensylvanica is a common herbaceous understory species in the more mesic stands. This map unit corresponds to the concepts of the Quercus macrocara forest and woodland alliance of the NVCS.


Value 39
Description 39 - Aspen - Bur Oak Woodland. Woodlands dominated by a mixture of Quercus macrocarpa and Populus tremuloides.


Value 40
Description 40 - Lacustrine wetlands. Wetlands and deepwater habitats with all of the following characteristics: (1) situated in a topographic depression or a dammed river channel, (2) lacking trees, shrubs, persistent emergents, emergent mosses or lichens with greater than 30% areal coverage.


Value 41
Description 41 - Riverine wetlands. Wetlands and deepwater habitats contained within a channel, with the following exception (1) wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergents, emergent mosses or lichens. A channel is an open conduit either naturally or artificially created which periodically or continuously contains moving water, or which forms a connecting link between two bodies of standing water. This map unit was created from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Data.


Value 42
Description 42 - Palustrine temporary wetland. Wetlands dominated by persistent emergents or aquatic beds where surface water is present for brief periods during the growing season, but the water table usually lies well below the soil surface. Plants that grow both in uplands and wetlands may be characteristic of this water regime. This map unit was created from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Data.


Value 43
Description 43 - Palustrine seasonal wetland. Wetlands dominated by persistent emergents or aquatic beds where surface water is present for extended periods especially early in the growing season, but is absent by the end of the growing season in most years. The water table after flooding ceases is variable, extending from saturated to the surface to a water table well below the ground surface. This map unit was created from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Data.


Value 44
Description 44 - Palustrine semipermanent wetland. Wetlands dominated by persistent emergents or aquatic beds where surface water persists throughout the growing season in most years. When surface water is absent, the water table is usually at or very near the land's surface. This map unit was created from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Data.


Value 45
Description 45 - Water. Surface water identified from analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery that was not identified as wetlands in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetland Inventory Data. This land cover category can include an increase in the area of wetlands since the creation of the NWI data, edge effects related to resampling the NWI vectors to a raster format, and omission errors in NWI.


Value 50
Description 50 - Barren Land - lands characterized by rock, gravel, sand, or soil and the absence or low abundance of vegetation. Examples include mines, roads, oil pads and other anthropogenic or natural disturbances that result in the loss of vegetation.


Value 51
Description 51 - Sparse vegetation - Badlands. Steep, primarily south and west facing slopes with less than < 20% vegetation cover in the Little Missouri Badlands and flats formed from mudstone, claystone, siltstone and scoria. Xeric shrubs species from Artemisia, Chrysothamnus, and Atriplex genera are often the principal vegetation.


Value 52
Description 52 - Sparse Vegetation - Riverine. Sparsely vegetated gravel and sand bars along the Missouri river.


Value 60
Description 60 - Developed - High intensity residential. Highly developed areas where people reside in high numbers. Examples include apartment complexes and row houses. Vegetation accounts for less than 20% of the land cover. This map unit was created from the 1992 National Land Cover Data for North Dakota.


Value 61
Description 61 - Developed - Low intensity residential. Lands consisting of a mixture of constructed materials and vegetation. Constructed materials account for 30-80 percent of the land cover. Vegetation may account for 20-70 percent of the cover. These areas most commonly include single-family housing units. Population densities are lower than in high intensity residential areas. This map unit was created from the 1992 National Land Cover Data for North Dakota.


Value 62
Description 62 - Developed - Commercial/industrial/transportation. Infrastructure such as roads, railroads, airports and other highly developed areas not classified as high intensity residential. This map unit was created from the 1992 National Land Cover Data for North Dakota.


Value 63
Description 63 - Developed - Urban grasslands. Lands planted to primarily grasses in developed settings for recreation, erosion control or aesthetic purposes. Examples include parks, lawns, golf courses, airport grasslands, and industrial site grasslands. This map unit was created from the 1992 National Land Cover Data for North Dakota.


Value 64
Description 64 - Developed - Recently Developed lands. Areas that have been recently developed or were omissions in the developed land cover categories in the 1992 North Dakota National Land Cover data.




Field Count
 
*Alias COUNT
*Data type Integer
*Width 4
*Precision 10
*Scale 0
Field description
number of pixels for a land cover category

Description source
ESRI



Field CLASS_NAME
 
*Alias CLASS_NAME
*Data type String
*Width 40
*Precision 0
*Scale 0






Overview Description
Entity and Attribute Detail Citation
NatureServe. 2001. International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation. Natural Heritage Central Databases. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

U.S Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1976. National Range Handbook. Washington, D.C.

Barnes, P. W., L. L. Tieszen, and D. J. Ode. 1983. Distribution, production, and diversity of C3 and C4 dominated communities in a mixed prairie. Canadian Journal of Botany 61:741-751. 

Clements, F E. 1920. Plant indicators: The relation of plant communities to process and practice. Press of Gibson Brothers, Inc. Carnegie Institution of Washington. 73-139.

Cosby, H. E. 1965. Fescue grassland in North Dakota. J. Range Manage. 18:284-285.

Coupland, R T. 1992. Fescue prairie. Pages 291-295 in Coupland, R. T., ed., Ecosystems of the World 8A: Natural Grasslands: Introduction and Western Hemisphere. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 

Dix, R. L. and F. E. Smeins. 1967. The prairie, meadow, and marsh vegetation of Nelson County, North Dakota. Canadian Journal of Botany 45:21-58.

Hansen, P L, Hoffman, G R, and Bjugstad, A J. 1984. The vegetation of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota: A habitat type classification. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report. 35 pp.

Hegstad, G.D.  1973.  Vascular flora of Burke, Divide, Mountrail, and Williams counties in northwest North Dakota.  Ph.D. Diss., ND State Univ., Fargo, ND.

Johnson, W. C., R. L. Burgess, and W. R. Keammerer. 1976. Forest overstory vegetation and environment on the Missouri River floodplain in North Dakota. Ecological Monographs 46:59-84

Küchler, A W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States. American Geographical Society American Geographical Society Special Publication. 19 pp. 

Redmann, R. E. 1975. Production ecology of grassland plant communities in western North Dakota. Ecological Monographs 45:83-106.

Shantz, H. L. 1923. The natural vegetation of the Great Plains region. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 13:81-107.

Stewart, R. E. 1975.  Breeding birds of North Dakota.  Tri-College Center for Environmental Studies. Fargo, ND.

Weaver, J.E. and F.E. Clements.  1938.  Plant Ecology.  McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Weaver, J.E. and T. J. Fitzpatrick.  1934.  The prairie.  Ecological Monographs. 4:113-295.

Whitman, W.C. 1979.  Analysis of grassland vegetation on selected key areas in southwestern ND.  North Dakota Regional Environmental Assessment Program. 199 pp.

Whitman, W.C. and Barker, W.T.  1994. Rangeland cover types of the Northern Great Plains region .  Pages 69-84 in T.N. Shiflet, ed. Rangeland Cover Types of the United States.  Society for Range Management. Denver, CO.



Entity and Attribute Overview
Value  Area(sq km) land cover category
 0     36178.1     background - outside ND boundary
 1     88165.9     cropland
 2     30542.7     planted herbaceous perennials
10      1402.3     prairie - wet-mesic tall grass
11       156.2     prairie - mesic tall grass
12      2054.3     prairie - mesic tall and mixed grass
13      5851.7     prairie - bluestem-needlegrass-wheatgrass
14      8291.1	   prairie - wheatgrass prairie
15      7392.0     prairie - needlegrass prairie
16      4298.5     prairie - little bluestem
17       444.4     prairie - fescue
18      4267.7     prairie - sand
19      1523.2     prairie - saline
20      4299.2     shrubland - upland deciduous
21        79.1     shrubland - lowland deciduous
22       902.8     shrubland - sagebrush
30         9.6     woodland - ponderosa pine
31         0.3     woodland - limber pine
32       193.6     woodland - rocky mountain juniper
33       450.2     woodland - mixed conifer and deciduous woodland
34       688.2     woodland - floodplain
35      1601.9     woodland - deciduous
36       498.7     woodland - green ash
37       290.1     woodland - aspen
38       234.4     woodland - bur oak
39       317.2     woodland - aspen and bur oak
40      3482.5     wetland - lacustrine
41       442.0     wetland - riverine
42      3086.6     wetland - palustrine temporary
43      5162.5     wetland - palustrine seasonal
44      2794.7     wetland - palustrine semipermanent
45      1329.2     wetland - water
50       310.9     barren land 
51      1479.0     sparse vegetation - badlands
52       106.8     sparse vegetation - riparian
60        89.3     developed - high intensity residential
61       232.8     developed - low intensity residential
62       475.7     developed - commerical/industrial/transporation
63       108.6     developed - urban grasslands
64        46.9     developed - recently developed or omissions in 1992 NLC





Metadata Details 

Metadata language English (UNITED STATES)
Metadata character set  utf8 - 8 bit UCS Transfer Format


Scope of the data described by the metadata  dataset
Scope name* dataset


*Last update 2016-01-19


ArcGIS metadata properties
Metadata format ArcGIS 1.0


Created in ArcGIS for the item 2008-11-19 17:37:55
Last modified in ArcGIS for the item 2016-01-19 13:31:00


Automatic updates
Have been performed Yes
Last update 2016-01-19 13:31:00


Metadata Contacts 

Metadata contact
Individual's name Larry Strong
Organization's name U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Contact's position Wildlife Biologist
Contact's role  point of contact


Contact information
Phone
Voice 701 253-5524

Address
City Jamestown
Administrative area North Dakota
Postal code 58401
Country US
e-mail addressLarry_Strong@usgs.gov