Southwest North Dakota CIR Aerial Photography 2007

Tags
North Dakota, ND, GIS Hub, NDGIS, NDGISHub, sagebrush, mapping, Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Cedar Creek, color, infrared, imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, environment


Description

One-meter pixel resolution. In 2008, the Bureau of Reclamation’s Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Group (RSGIG) in collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management Miles City Field Office mapped sagebrush and other land cover in a study area in and around the Cedar Creek Anticline within the Williston Basin. The study area fell within portions of NW South Dakota, SW North Dakota and SE Montana representing approximately 1,132,000 acres. The project utilized the recently developed methodology of combining high resolution multi-band color infrared digital imagery along with object oriented image processing for the identification and mapping of sagebrush over a large area in a cost effective manner. The objective of the project was to cost effectively collect and analyze imagery to determine the extent of sagebrush vegetation communities at a level of detail to assess vegetation community relationships. The costs incurred by using the methodology represented in this project to map 10 land classes have been estimated at $.40 to $.80 per-acre compared to the $2.00 to $3.00 per-acre using traditional methodologies.

Summary

1-meter pixel resolution CIR aerial photography of an area in southwestern North Dakota.

Credits

Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, ND GIS Hub

Use limitations

The State of North Dakota has compiled this data according to conventional cartographic standards, using what is thought to be the most reliable information available. This data is intended to make results of research available at the earliest possible date, but is not intended to constitute final or formal publication. The State of North Dakota makes every effort to provide virus-free files but does not guarantee uncorrupted files. The State of North Dakota does not guarantee this data to be free from errors, inaccuracies, or viruses, and disclaims any responsibility or liability for interpretations or decisions based on this data.

Scale Range

Metadata 

Topics and Keywords 

Themes or categories of the resource  biota, environment, geoscientificInformation, imageryBaseMapsEarthCover


Place keywords  North Dakota, Montana, South Dakota

Theme keywords  Orthophoto, aerial imagery, CIR,

Citation 

Title Southwest North Dakota CIR Aerial Photography 2007
Creation date 2007-10-10 00:00:00
Publication date 2008-03-01 00:00:00


Presentation formats* digital map


Citation Contacts 

Responsible party
Individual's name Alan Bell
Organization's name Bureau of Reclamation


Contact information
Phone
Voice  303-445-2268

Address
Type
Delivery point Denver Federal Center, Bldg 56 Room 2665
City Denver
Administrative area Colorado
Postal code 80225-0007
e-mail addressabell@do.usbr.gov

Hours of service
8am-5pm, Mountain Time



Resource Details 

Dataset languages* English (UNITED STATES)
Dataset character set  utf8 - 8 bit UCS Transfer Format


Spatial representation type* grid


Supplemental information
*Processing environment Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Version 6.1 (Build 7601) Service Pack 1; Esri ArcGIS 10.2.1.3497


Credits
Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, ND GIS Hub

*Name AerialImage_SouthWest_2007_CIR

Extents 

Extent
Geographic extent
Bounding rectangle
Extent type  Extent used for searching
*West longitude -104.567612
*East longitude -103.551832
*North latitude 46.718680
*South latitude 45.796553
*Extent contains the resource Yes

Temporal extent
Beginning date 2007-10-02 00:00:00
Ending date 2008-03-01 00:00:00

Extent in the item's coordinate system
*West longitude 533598.459300
*East longitude 610690.659300
*South latitude 5072429.880700
*North latitude 5173996.680700
*Extent contains the resource Yes

Resource Points of Contact 

Point of contact
Individual's name Michael Larson
Organization's name Fugro Horizons Inc.
Contact's position Project Manager
Contact's role  point of contact


Contact information
Phone
Voice 605-343-0280

Address
Type
Delivery point 3600 Jet Drive
City Rapid City
Administrative area SD
Postal code  57703
e-mail addressmike.larson@fugrohorizons.com

Hours of service
8am-5pm Mountain Time



Resource Constraints 

Constraints
Limitations of use

The State of North Dakota has compiled this data according to conventional cartographic standards, using what is thought to be the most reliable information available. This data is intended to make results of research available at the earliest possible date, but is not intended to constitute final or formal publication. The State of North Dakota makes every effort to provide virus-free files but does not guarantee uncorrupted files. The State of North Dakota does not guarantee this data to be free from errors, inaccuracies, or viruses, and disclaims any responsibility or liability for interpretations or decisions based on this data.


Spatial Reference 

ArcGIS coordinate system
*Type Projected
*Geographic coordinate reference GCS_North_American_1983
*Projection NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_13N
*Coordinate reference details
Projected coordinate system
Well-known identifier 26913
X origin -5120900
Y origin -9998100
XY scale 450445547.3910538
Z origin -100000
Z scale 10000
M origin -100000
M scale 10000
XY tolerance 0.001
Z tolerance 0.001
M tolerance 0.001
High precision true
Latest well-known identifier 26913
Well-known text PROJCS["NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_13N", GEOGCS["GCS_North_American_1983", DATUM["D_North_American_1983", SPHEROID["GRS_1980", 6378137.0, 298.257222101]], PRIMEM["Greenwich", 0.0], UNIT["Degree", 0.0174532925199433]], PROJECTION["Transverse_Mercator"], PARAMETER["false_easting", 500000.0], PARAMETER["false_northing", 0.0], PARAMETER["central_meridian", -105.0], PARAMETER["scale_factor", 0.9996], PARAMETER["latitude_of_origin", 0.0], UNIT["Meter", 1.0], AUTHORITY["EPSG", 26913]]

Reference system identifier
*Value 26913
*Codespace EPSG
*Version 8.2.6


Spatial Data Properties 

Georectified Grid
*Number of dimensions 2


Axis dimensions properties
Dimension type  column (x-axis)
*Dimension size 85658
*Resolution  0.900000 Meter

Axis dimensions properties
Dimension type  row (y-axis)
*Dimension size 112852
*Resolution  0.900000 Meter

*Cell geometry  area
*Point in pixel  center


*Transformation parameters are available Yes


*Check points are available No


Corner points
*Point 533598.459300 5072429.880700
*Point 533598.459300 5173996.680700
*Point 610690.659300 5173996.680700
*Point 610690.659300 5072429.880700

*Center point 572144.559300 5123213.280700




Indirect spatial referencing
UTM Zone 13 North, NAD83 Datum


Grid
Transformation parameters are available No




ArcGIS Raster Properties
General Information
*Pixel depth 8
*Compression type None
*Number of bands 3
*Raster format AMD
*Source type continuous
*Pixel type unsigned integer
*Has colormap No
*Has pyramids Yes


Detailed properties
*Maximum image height 4100
*Maximum image width 15000
*Maximum record count 1000
*Maximum download image count 20
*Maximum mosaic image count 20
*Default compression quality 75
*Viewpoint spacing X 600
*Viewpoint spacing Y 300
*Allowed item metadata Full
*Default resampling method 1
*Allowed mosaic methods Center,NorthWest,LockRaster,ByAttribute,Nadir,Viewpoint,Seamline,None
*Allowed compressions None,JPEG,LZ77
*Available mosaic methods NorthWest,Center,LockRaster,ByAttribute,Nadir,Viewpoint,Seamline,None
*Available compression methods None,JPEG,LZ77,LERC
*Available metadata levels None,Basic,Full
*Allowed fields Name,MinPS,MaxPS,LowPS,HighPS,Tag,GroupName,ProductName,CenterX,CenterY,ZOrder,SOrder,StereoID,Shape_Length,Shape_Area
*ApplyColorCorrection 0
*MosaicOperator 1
*UseTime 0
*SortAscending -1
*ClipToFootprint 0
*IsPreprocessedData -1
*SortField Name
*SortValue 0
*LowCellSize 0.9
*HighCellSize 388.799999999999
*MaxCellSize 19439.9999999999


*Raster functions
Function Mosaic Function
Description Perform on-the-fly mosaic on a raster catalog.




Spatial Data Content 

Image Description
*Type of information  image


Band information
*Description Band_1
*Maximum value 249.000000
*Minimum value 0.000000
Units
*Symbol Meter

*Number of bits per value 8


Band information
*Description Band_2
*Maximum value 255.000000
*Minimum value 0.000000
Units
*Symbol Meter

*Number of bits per value 8


Band information
*Description Band_3
*Maximum value 255.000000
*Minimum value 0.000000
Units
*Symbol Meter

*Number of bits per value 8


Data Quality 

Data quality report
Evaluation method
Upon delivery the imagery was inspected for smears, unusual color variations, positional accuracy, study area coverage and other contractual specifications.  Minor color variations were found between North/South flight lines, but were deemed as an acceptable byproduct of the ADS40 data collection methodology. 

The processing of the ADS40 imagery was composed of several steps to generate a final classified object/polygon file.  6 individual color infrared image tiles in ERDAS .img format were received the photogrammetric contractor at a resolution of .3 meters, ranging from 28 to 50 gigabits in file size.  The 2007 research study discovered that for analytical efficiency, the ADS40 imagery needed to be degraded to a lower resolution of .9 meters to be compatible with the image size limitations of the Definiens software.  The risk with this option is that spectral information that might be invaluable in the classification process could also be reduced in quality or lost to the analysis.  A series of tests that were run in the 2007 research study comparing the spectral values and homogeneity of object files created from the original .3m x .3m imagery to a degraded .9m x .9m image revealed no significant difference between the object spectral values between the compared resolutions. Therefore the six original images received from horizons were degraded to 0.9m x 0.9m images (Site #1 through Site #6) to be used in the subsequent image processing





Data quality report
Measure description
The orthophotography meets National Map Accuracy Standards of 1947 for scale of 1 to 12000. The average RMS of the three AT Blocks in the X direction is 0.183m. The average RMS of the three AT Blocks in the Y direction is 0.200m. 



Evaluation method
GPS phase data was post processed with continuous kinematic survey techniques using "On the Fly" (OTF) integer ambiguity resolution. The GPS data was processed with forward and reverse processing algorithms. The results from each process, using the data collected at the airport, were combined to yield a single fixed integer phase differential solution of the aircraft trajectory. The differences between the forward to reverse solution within the project area were within project specifications (<10cm) in both the horizontal and vertical components, indicating a valid and accurate solution. An IMU was used to record precise changes in position and orientation of the ADS40 Digital Camera System. All IMU data was processed post flight with a filter to integrate inertial measurements and precise phase differential GPS positions. The resulting solution contains geodetic position, omega, phi, kappa, and time for digital image processing. 





Lineage 

Lineage statement
The Leica GeoSystems GPro software was used for downloading and preparing imagery collected with the ADS40 Airborne Digital Sensor for softcopy photogrammetric use. The raw image was download in the field with GPro to a portable workstation. This enabled a quick look at image quality and coverage. Using the Applanix POSgps software package the GPS data was differentially processed against a base station. After the differential GPS solution was checked and verified the Applanix POSproc program was used to compute an integrated GPS/IMU navigation solution at one-second intervals. Using the GPS/IMU trajectory computed by the Applanix POSproc software and the camera calibration, GPro computed a full x,y,z, omega,phi,kappa exterior orientation of each scan line. Using the orientation data file produced the L0 imagery was resampled. The resampling removes most aircraft motion and provides epipolar geometry imagery for stereo viewing, automated aerotriangulation and automated DEM extraction. The Level 1 epipolar-resampled and georeferenced imagery usually will provide a pixel’s true ground location to within a few pixels without any additional processing. To improve accuracy, a fully automatic aerotriangulation process was performed to minimize the residual errors in the GPS/IMU derived exterior orientations. The aerotriangulation also allowed the introduction of ground control and checkpoints to ensure the accuracy specifications were achieved. Automated aerotriangulation of ADS40 imagery was performed with the Socet Set Automatic Point Measurement (APM) tool. A digital elevation model (DEM) was required for orthophoto production. Autocorrelated Elevation Data was used as the DEM for orthophoto creation. Orthophotos were created utilizing Leica Geosystem GPRO software. Orthos were created in GPRO in UTM Zone 13 meters. The orthos were then placed in a Horizons proprietary database format. The database was edited for seamlines, and other artifacts. Since the imagery was calibrated by the system calibration no color correcting was done to the imagery. The imagery tiles were QC'ed and delivered on an External Hard Drive. 

Metadata Details 

*Metadata language English (UNITED STATES)


*Last update 2014-04-21


ArcGIS metadata properties
Metadata format ArcGIS 1.0
Metadata style FGDC CSDGM Metadata
Standard or profile used to edit metadata FGDC


Created in ArcGIS for the item 2012-11-30 13:13:49
Last modified in ArcGIS for the item 2014-04-21 10:05:57


Automatic updates
Have been performed Yes
Last update 2014-04-21 10:05:57


Metadata Contacts 

Metadata contact
Individual's name Michael Larson
Organization's name  Fugro Horizons, Inc.
Contact's position Project Manager


Contact information
Phone
Voice  605-343-0280

Address
Type
Delivery point 3600 Jet Drive
City Rapid City
Administrative area South Dakota
Postal code 57703
e-mail addressmike.larson@fugrohorizons.com

Hours of service
8am-5pm Mountain Time